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# Newtonian physics -or Classical Mechanics,

The term classical mechanics was developed in the early 20th century to describe the system of mathematical physics begun by Sir Isaac Newton and many contemporary 17th century natural philosophers.  It was based on the precise observations of Tycho Brahe and the studies of terrestrial projectile motion of Galileo.

The initial stage in the development of classical mechanics are often referred to as Newtonian mechanics, and is associated with the physical concepts employed by and the mathematical methods invented by Newton

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries, and can be summarized as follows:

1. First Law: Every body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) unless it is acted upon by an external unbalanced force. ] This means that in the absence of a non-zero net force, the center of mass of a body either remains at rest, or moves at a constant speed in a straight line.
2. Second Law: A body of mass m subject to a force F undergoes an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass, i.e., F = ma. Alternatively, the total force applied on a body is equal to the time derivative of linear momentum of the body.
3. Third Law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear. This means that whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law, with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". Sir Isaac Newton - 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727  was an English mathematician, physicist,  astronomer, alchemist, natural philosopher and theologian who is considered by many to be one of the most influential men in human history.

Newton today remains influential to scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science and had the greater contribution to humankind, Newton or Albert Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution on both.